Guidelines for Authors
according to the
of the American Psychological Association
Order of References in the Reference List
- Alphabetize letter by letter - Brown precedes Browning.
- Alphabetize the prefixes literally - MacDowell precedes McDowell.
- Order same author with the earliest date first:
- Brown, L. S. (1996).
- Brown, L. S. (1999).
- Order one-author entries before multiple-author entries:
- Allen, L. J. (2001).
- Allen, L. J, & Brown, J. G. (1999).
- Order references by the same author in a year as follows:
- Green, T. L. (1999a).
- Green, T. L. (1999b).
General Forms - (note punctuation, spacing, capitalization, and italics.)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author C. C. (1994). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx.
Author, A. A. (1994). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
- Part of nonperiodical
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1994). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.
- Online periodical
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2000, May). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. Retrieved month day, year, from source (e.g., from http://www.abc.org).
- Online document
Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.
- Article, no author
The new health care lexicon. (1993, August/September). Health Care Newsletter, x, xx-xx. (This would be alphabetized with the first significant word, new.)
- Newspaper, no author
New drug appears. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12
- Citation (within text) of a work discussed in a secondary source
Abington and McCarthy study (as cited in Brown, Green, & White, 1993)
- Citation for above (within reference list)
Brown, B., Green, A. W., & White, A. M. (1993). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, x-xx.
- Document available on organization Web site
Mitstifer, D. I. (n.d.). Kappa Omicron Nu: Making a learning community. Retrieved November 19, 2000, from Kappa Omicron Nu Web site: http://www.kon.org/lc.html
- Author's responsibilities - proofread the manuscript and prepare a cover letter to accompany the submitted manuscript.
- Paper - print on one side only of 8 1/2 x 11 paper.
- Typeface - 12-pt Times Roman or 12-pt Courier (serif typeface is preferred because it improves readability.
- Double-spacing - this aids readability and editing.
- Margins - leave at least 1 in. at the top, bottom, left, and right of every page.
- Order of pages - title page, abstract, text, references, appendixes, author note, footnotes, tables, figure captions, figures.
- Page numbers and headers - use a running title (partial title) and page number on each page, flush right.
- Paragraphs and Indentation - indent the first line of every paragraph about 1/2 inch.
- Headings - three levels
- Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
- Flush left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading
- Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.
- Spacing and punctuation - space once after all
punctuation as follows:
- After commas, colons, and semicolons
- After punctuation marks at the ends of sentences
- After periods that separate parts of a reference citation
- After the periods of the initials in personal names
- Do not space after internal periods in abbreviations (e.g., a.m., i.e., U.S.)
- Seriation within a paragraph or sentence, use lowercase letters (not italicized) in parenthesis - xxxxxxxxx (a) xxxxxxxxxxx, (b) xxxxxxxxxx, and (c)xxxxxxxxxxx.
- Seriation of separate paragraphs (itemized conclusions or steps) - Begin with paragraph indent, number each paragraph with an arabic numeral, and type second and succeeding lines flush left, followed by a period.
- Use comma between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.
- Short Quotations
- Quotations of fewer than 40 words should be incorporated into the text and enclosed by double quotation marks.
- Long Quotations
- Display quotations of 40 or more words in a double spaced block of lines with no quotation marks. Indent block 1/2 in.
For further information, consult the following publication:
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). (2001). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.